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1,2,3-trichloropropane Structural Diagram
1,2,3-trichloropropane Structural Diagram
CAS Number: 96-18-4
Synonyms: 1,2,3-TCP, NCI-C60220, TCP, allyl trichloride, glycerol trichlorohydrin, glyceryl trichlorohydrin, trichlorohydrin
Contaminant Type: Chemical

1,2,3-Trichloropropane is synthetic, chlorinated hydrocarbon. At room temperature, it is a colorless to straw-colored liquid [2412 and 2414]. It is manufactured for use as an industrial solvent and as a cleaning and degreasing agent [2412]. It is also a by-product of the production of other chlorinated compounds, including epichlorohydrin, and has been used as an intermediate in the production or synthesis of other chemicals such as polymers, polysulfides, and hexafluoropropylene [2412 and 2415]. It has been found as an impurity in soil fumigants [2412]. 1,2,3-Tricholoropropane production levels and use information is limited [2412].

1,2,3-Trichloropropane can enter the environment through industrial activity, including releases from manufacturers who make or use 1,2,3-trichloropropane, releases from disposal sites such as landfills or hazardous waste sites, agricultural application of fumigants, and from chemical spills. Annual releases reported to the Toxics Release Inventory ranged from more than 98,000 pounds to less than 1,500 pounds between 1998 and 2013, primarily released via fugitive air emissions, stack emissions, or landfill disposal [2416].

1,2,3-Trichloropropane is moderately volatile from aqueous phase [2415]. Therefore, releases to surface water or surface soils can evaporate. In the air, 1,2,3-trichloropropane is oxidized by hydroxyl radicals; with a predicted half-life ranging from 27 to 46 days depending on modeling assumptions. Subsurface releases can result in groundwater contamination because breakdown in or evaporation from groundwater is minimal. Although reductive dehalogenation might occur in anaerobic sediments, 1,2,3-trichloropropane was not readily biodegradable in tests under aerobic conditions [2415]. Measured bioconcentration factors indicate no significant bioaccumulation potential [2415].

Exposure routes for 1,2,3-trichloropropane include inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact [2414]. USEPA has classified 1,2 3-trichloropropaneis as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans” under the 2005 "Guidelines for Carcinogenic Risk Assessment", based on tumors in animal studies including tumors of the oral cavity, forestomach, pancreas, kidney, preputial gland, clitoral gland, mammary gland, and Zymbal's gland in rats, and the oral cavity, forestomach, liver, Harderian gland, and uterus in mice [2417]. USEPA has also established a chronic oral reference dose (RfD) of 4 x 10-3 milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg/day) and a chronic inhalation reference concentration (RfC) of 3 x 10-4 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) to reduce the risk of chronic exposure health effects such as liver and kidney damage and reduced body weight [2417, 2412]. As of 2015, 1,2,3-trichloropropane is not regulated in drinking water, but there is a 1-day health advisory of 0.6 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and a 10-day health advisory of 0.6 mg/L for TCP in drinking water for a 10 kilogram (kg) child [2412].

2412 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 1995; ATSDR ToxFAQs: 1,2,3-Trichloropropane; Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tfacts57.pdf
2413 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 2014; Technical fact Sheet - 1,2,3-Trichloropropane; Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response; http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-03/documents/ffrrofactsheet_contaminant_tcp_january2014_final.pdf
2414 National Toxics Program (NTP); 2014; Report on Carcinogens, Thirteenth Edition; Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.; http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/roc13/#T
2415 International Programme Chemical Safety (IPCS); 2003; Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 56: 1,2,3-Trichloropropane; Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; http://www.inchem.org/documents/cicads/cicads/cicad56.htm
2416 Toxics Release Inventory Program; 2014; Releases: Trends Report for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane.; TRI Explorer; http://iaspub.epa.gov/triexplorer/tri_release.trends
2417 Integrated Risk Information System; 2009; IRIS Summary for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane; U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment; http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0200.htm